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二战德国“俾斯麦”级战列舰的穷途末路

日期:2019-03-15 来源:故宫历史网 编辑:阿名 阅读:

说起二战德国海军,必定绕不过“俾斯麦”级战列舰这个梗。这一级战列舰承载着“第三帝国”重振“公海舰队”雄风的夙愿,浓缩着德国精工制造的全部精华,留下“秒杀胡德号”、“只身对抗600战机”等为后人津津乐道的传奇,在德国海军历史上确实名气甚大。“俾斯麦”级战列舰德国只建造了两艘,分别是“俾斯麦”号和“提尔皮茨”号,首舰“俾斯麦”号于二战爆发不久建成入役,是当时世界第一大战列舰,之后才被日本“大和”级、美国“依阿华”级战列舰超越,最终成为世界第三大战列舰。德国“俾斯麦”级战列舰厉害是厉害,可惜出现在错误的时间、错误的地点和错误的对手面前,一出海即招来英国皇家海军大半个舰队的围攻群殴,偏偏这姊妹舰又皮实得像关汉卿笔下的“铜豌豆”,英国佬使出洪荒之力才将这俩硬货怼沉,在役分别只有9个月和3年9个月,成为二战中最早沉没的5万吨级以上大型战列舰,从而也撞响了“巨舰大炮”时代的丧钟。
二战海战十大明星兵器系列之八鈥斺數鹿溬滤孤筲澕墩搅薪⒌那钔灸┞

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第一次世界大战期间,德意志帝国拥有仅次于英国的世界第二大海军舰队(约130万吨),日德兰大海战曾将英国皇家海军打得灰头土脸,可战争历经4年德国最终战败。德国海军公海舰队虽投降却不服气,在英国斯卡帕湾玩了一把“彩虹行动”,52艘战舰(包括10艘战列舰、5艘战列巡洋舰、5艘巡洋舰、32艘驱逐舰)同时打开通海阀自沉,把一脸懵圈的英国佬鼻子都气歪了。一战之后,耿耿于怀的汉斯们总想着重建强大的公海舰队,再与英法重新争夺欧洲霸主。可有《凡尔赛条约》的限制以及战争赔款的压力,德国的军事实力与军工生产受到极大的制约。直到德国右翼上台,扩张野心迅速转化为实际行动,德国的军备发展也进入撒丫子猛跑的模式,德国军工业又迎来一个如火如荼的时期。
二战海战十大明星兵器系列之八鈥斺數鹿溬滤孤筲澕墩搅薪⒌那钔灸┞

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德国启动“俾斯麦”级战列舰计划后,真正体会到什么是理想很丰满,现实太骨感,面对英美等先进国家的技术封锁,生性严谨的德国人为降低技术风险和保证建造进度,采取了保守的设计路线,大量采用成熟可靠但已落后的一战时设计。这使“俾斯麦”级战列舰整体钢甲厚重,设有大量抗沉水密舱,但装甲带分布不尽合理,主炮口径、门数显得不足,防空火力更加薄弱,为日后海战中被击沉埋下隐患。一战之后各国新设计的战列舰主炮口径不断增大、门数逐渐增多,而“俾斯麦”级战列舰主炮为4座双联装381毫米8门,完全使用的是一战时期“巴伐利亚”级战列舰的主炮设计,仅在射速、准确性方面还有优势,可相对弹药投送量不足。同期英国“纳尔逊”级、美国“依阿华”级战列舰主炮都是3座三联装406毫米9门,日本“大和”级战列舰主炮更是创世界记录的3座三联装460毫米9门,连猪队友意大利的“维内托”级战列舰主炮也是3座三联装381毫米9门,虽口径同“俾斯麦”级但比其多出1门。德国设计师明显对来自空中的威胁估计不足,防空思维还停留在一战时期,在“俾斯麦”号战列舰仅装备了105毫米高射炮16门、37毫米机关炮16门、20毫米机关炮20门,而美国的“依阿华”级战列舰上有127毫米高平两用炮20门、40毫米机关炮80门、20毫米机关炮60门,在防空火力尤其是速射机关炮上差了足有三条马路。
二战海战十大明星兵器系列之八鈥斺數鹿溬滤孤筲澕墩搅薪⒌那钔灸┞

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“俾斯麦”号战列舰的姊妹舰“提尔皮茨”号吨位略大,服役稍晚,可谓充分汲取了“俾斯麦”号倾覆的教训:一是加装大量小口径机关炮用于防空;二是更加窝在港内不动弹以延长“寿命”。可一根筋的德国人还是念念不忘用大型战舰去打破交战,这是笔得不偿失的买卖。1942年1月,服役近一年的“提尔皮茨”号被派往占领下的挪威,主要作战目标是北极航线上同盟国援苏的运输船队。在这之前“提尔皮茨”号仅执行过一次炮击苏联列宁格勒喀朗施塔得港的任务,欺负一下更弱鸡的苏联海军。但在挪威近三年的时间里,“提尔皮茨”号也仅出航执行三次任务,均是有惊无险的“快闪”模式,其中的第三次也是其服役生涯的最后一次出航是炮击英军设在北极圈斯皮尔根岛的气象站。“提尔皮茨”号的存在毕竟有很大的威慑作用,总让英国佬感到不安和忌惮,并牵制了英军的大量兵力。
二战海战十大明星兵器系列之八鈥斺數鹿溬滤孤筲澕墩搅薪⒌那钔灸┞

广东快乐十分 ZAIYINGJUNDEHUSHIDANDANZHIXIA,“TIERPICI”HAOJUEDABUFENSHIJIANZHUANZHANWOJUZAINUOWEITELONGHEMUGANG、AERTAXIAWANHELINGENXIAWANDENGCHU,BEIRENMENCHENGWEI“BEIFANGGUDUNVWANG”。DEGUOHUAJUZIDAZAODEZUIDAZHANJIANJIHUCHENGLEBAISHE,DAOHOUQIDEJUNRANGSHOUSUNDE“TIERPICI”HAOCHONGDANGYIDONGPAOTAI,YONGYUZUJIMENGJUNDENGLUNUOWEI。NUOWEIMANZHANGDEHAIANXIANMIBUDIXINGFUZADEXIAWAN,YIYUZHANJIANYINBI,KEXIAWANBUSHIBAOXIANJU,YIJIANG“TIERPICI”HAOSHIWEIYANZHONGDINGROUZHONGCIDEYINGJUNCHIXUPAICHU600DUOJIACIHONGZHAJIHESHUSOUQIANTINGLAI“WENHOU”,JIANGUDE“TIERPICI”HAOJINGSHOULEWUSHUCIXIAOSHANGHESHUCIZHONGCHUANGRENGYILIBUDAO,JILEYANDEYINGGUOLAOZHIDEJICHUZUIHOUDESASHOUJIAN——CHUOHAO“GAOJIAOBEI”ZHONG5.5DUNDECHAOJIZHADAN(JIANSHANGTU),TAJIHUSHIWEIGANDIAO“TIERPICI”HAOZHANLIEJIANLIANGSHENDINGZHIDE,YINGJUNHAITEYIDIAOLAIZHANJIHEHEDEHONGZHAJI617ZHONGDUI。1944NIAN11YUE12RISHANGWU9SHIXU,YINGJUN29JIA“LANKAISITE”ZHONGXINGHONGZHAJIFEILIN“TIERPICI”HAOZHANLIEJIANSHANGKONGYITONGKUANGHONGLANZHA,QIZHONG3MEI“GAOJIAOBEI”ZHADANJIANGQICHEDIZHACHENYULINGENXIAWANHAYIDAONANCEHAIYU,JIANSHANGDEJUNGUANBING982RENSANGSHENG。“TIERPICI”HAOZAIDUOMAOMAOZHONGBI“BISIMAIHAO”HAODUOCUNHUOLE3NIAN,KEMEIYOUZHENGERBAJINGDAGUOYICHANGHAIZHAN,DUIJIANZHANJIWEILING,ZHEI“YISHENG”YEGOUWONANGDE。

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