广东快乐十分

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一个王朝的悲剧,一场本该早些消灭的瘟疫

日期:2020-02-03 来源:历史研习社 编辑:历史君 阅读:

1YUE20RI,GUOJIAWEIJIANWEIFABU1HAOGONGGAO,JIANGXINXINGGUANZHUANGBINGDUGANRANDEFEIYANNARU《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOCHUANRANBINGFANGZHIFA》GUIDINGDEYILEICHUANRANBING,BINGCAIQUJIALEICHUANRANBINGDEYUFANG、KONGZHICUOSHI。

广东快乐十分  

YIGEJIBINGYIDANBEIQUEDINGWEICHUANRANBING,JIUYIWEIZHETANENGGOUZAIRENYURENZHIJIANHUORENYUDONGWUZHIJIANXIANGHUCHUANBOBINGGUANGFANLIUXING。TADEQIANZAIPOHUAILIJIAOZHIYUPUTONGJIBINGYOUZHISHUJIDETIGAO,JUEDUIBUYUNXUDIAOYIQINGXIN。

 

人类的历史广东快乐十分,其实就是一场人类与病毒的抗争史。

 

14世纪鼠疫引发的黑死病消灭了欧洲三分之一的人口;15世纪地理大发现欧洲人将天花带入美洲大陆,毫无抵抗力的美洲土著几乎灭族;1918年到1920年,“西班牙流感”横扫美洲、欧洲、亚洲,甚至爱斯基摩人聚集区,夺去了全世界6500万人的生命……

 

 

广东快乐十分 XIANDAIFADADEYILIAOJISHUZHICHENGXIA,RENMENDUIYUSHENGMINGDEYUQIYOULEDAFUTIGAO,DUIYUBUKEKANGLIDEYUESHUYOUYIZHONGPENGZHANGDEZIXIN。

 

RENLEIDUIKANGCHUANRANXINGJIBINGDELISHICHONGMANLEXUELEI。DUIYUCHUANRANXINGJIBING,XINCUNJINGWEIBIMANGMUZIXINGENGNENGGOUTIXIANSHENGMINGDEJIAZHI。

 

广东快乐十分 ZAICHUANRANXINGJIBINGMIANQIAN,XINCUNJIAOXINGSHIHUIHAIRENDE。

广东快乐十分  

譬如,贵为天子的同治皇帝,拥有大清朝最好的医疗条件,一旦遇到传染性疾病,又能如何?

 

FANSHIKANGUOZHOUXINGCHIDIANYING《JIUPINZHIMAGUANZHIBAIMIANBAOQINGTIAN》DEREN,DOUHUIDUIDIANYINGZHONGDETONGZHIHUANGDIEWANTANXI。TAYINWEIGUANGQINGLOU,DAOZHIGANRANMEIDU,ZUIHOUYINGNIANZAOSHI。HUANGDIJUTIQUSHIDESHIJIANSHI1874NIAN12YUE5RI,DIDIANWEIZIJINCHENGDEDONGNUANGE。

广东快乐十分  

      
(电影中的同治帝)

 

DANSHI,TONGZHIHUANGDIGUANGQINGLOUSHIZHEN,DEMEIDUZESHIJIA。

 

根据宫廷太医留下的同治帝去世前37天的详细病历,现代的医学专家可以判定他得的其实是痘疮,也就是天花,而并非梅毒。1979年,中国广东快乐十分第一历史档案馆、中医研究院和北京医院的有关专家教授召开会议,对同治皇帝的病情发展及用药情况进行专门的研讨,大家的结论认为,同治皇帝死于天花是确定无疑的。

 

只是因为临死前同治帝的症状与梅毒末期的症状相似,所以那些没有医学知识的太监们才会到处传八卦,说皇帝是因为得了梅毒而死。而有医学知识的人就不会这么胡乱猜测,比如帝师翁同龢在看望过同治帝之后,就在日记中明确记述了同治帝是得了天花。

 

TONGZHIDIZHENZHENGDESIYIN,WUXUWOZAIDUOYAN。WOZHISHIGANKAI,TONGZHIDIDESISHIYICHANGDIURENDEBEIJU。

 

ZUOWEIYIGEZUIZAOZHANGWO“ZHONGDOU”JISHUFANGZHITIANHUADEGUOJIA,DAQINGDIGUODEHUANGDIJINGRANSIYUTIANHUA,SHUOCHULAIZHENSHIHUANGTANGKEXIAO。

一、中国人发明种痘法

TIANHUASHIRENLEILISHISHANGZHONGYAODECHUANRANBING,YOUTIANHUABINGDUYINFA。

 

广东快乐十分 GENJULISHIJIZAI,TIANHUAZAOZAISHUQIANNIANQIANJIUZAIAIJI、ZHONGGUO、YINDUDEGUWENMINGSINVE,GUAIJIFALAOLAMEIXISIWUSHI,JIUYISIZAIXIYUANQIAN 1154 NIANSIYUTIANHUA;DANGOUZHOURENZHIMINMEIZHOUYIHOU,PIAOYANGGUOHAIDETIANHUAGENGSHICHENGWEIZHIMINZHEQINLVEDEBANGXIONG,DUOZOUDALIANGYUANZHUMINDEXINGMING。16SHIJISHI,TAHAICENGSINVEQUANQIU,ZAOCHENG350DUOWANRENSIWANG。

 

广东快乐十分 YOUCIKEJIAN,TIANHUAZHEIZHONGRENDANGSHAREN、FODANGSHAFODECHANGKUANGCHUANRANBING,ZAIRENLEILISHISHANG,LIANHEISIBINGDOUNANYIWANGQIXIANGBEI——ZAIDIDIANSHANG,HEISIBINGHAIZHISHIZAIOUZHOUSINVE,MEIYOUZAIZHONGGUOFENGXING;ZAISHIJIANSHANG,HEISIBINGHAIZHISHIZAIZHONGSHIJISHENGMINGXIANHE,YIHOUYINGXIANGLIJIURILUOXISHAN。

广东快乐十分  

TIANHUAFENGXINGPINGDENGZHUYI,WULUNSHIPINGMINBAIXING,HAISHIWANGGONGGUIZU,TADOUYISHITONGREN。QINGCHAOLIDAIHUANGDIZHONG,KANGXINIANYOUSHIDEGUOTIANHUA,SUIRANTINGLEGUOLAI,DANSHILIANSHANGQUELIUXIALEHUANGUOTIANHUADEYINHEN,CHENGLE“MALIANHUANGDI”。KANGXIDEFUQINSHUNZHIDIJIUMEIYOUNEIMEXINGYUNLE,TAZAIDELETIANHUAHOUZHIJIEJIUYIMINGMINGHULE。

广东快乐十分  

广东快乐十分 SHUNZHIHUANGDIYISHENGGONGFUYU8WEIHUANGZI、6WEIGONGZHU,QIZHONG4WEIHUANGZI、5WEIGONGZHUJINGDOUSIYUTIANHUAEJI,TIANHUADUISHUNZHICHAOHUANGSIDEZHISILVGAODA64.3%,ZHEIZUYISHUOMINGTIANHUADUIQINGCHUHUANGSHICHENGYUANDEJUDASHANGHAI。

广东快乐十分  

不过,在中国古代,很早就知道痘疮的预防方法是“种痘”,其原理是传统医学里“以毒攻毒”的理论。传统医学中有关接种疫苗、预防疾病的记载主要有两条,一条是晋朝葛洪在中医方剂学名著《肘后救卒方》中记载的,为预防狂犬病,当人被狂犬咬伤后,要用死亡的狂犬脑敷在伤口上,为被咬伤的患者接种免疫。这本书中也有我国最早有关天花的记载,当时称之为“虏疮”。

 

LINGYITIAOJIZAISHIDATANG“YISHENG”SUNSIMIAOWEIYUFANGCHUANGJIE,CENGJIANGSHENGCHUANGBINGRENDEXUEHENONGZHI,YONGDAOJUJIEZHONGDAOJIANKANGRENDEPIFUXIA。BUYAOSHUOZHEIZHONGZHONGDOUFANGFATAITENG,YINWEINEIGESHIHOUMEIYOUZHUSHEZHENGUAN。

广东快乐十分  

广东快乐十分 ZAIZHEIZHONGJIEZHONGYIMIAOJINGYANDEJICHUSHANG,ZHONGGUORENFAMINGLEZHUANMENYUFANGTIANHUADERENDOUJIEZHONGBANFA。

 

QINGCHAOYIJIAYUMAOKUNZAI《DOUKEJINJINGFUJIJIE》ZHONGSHUO:“ZHONGDOUFAQIYUMINGLONGQINGNIANJIAN,NINGGUOFUTAIPINGXIAN,XINGSHISHIKAO,DEZHIYIRENDANTUZHIJIA,YOUCIMANYANTIANXIA,ZHIJINZHONGHUAZHE,NINGGUORENJUDUO”。

 

QINGCHAOSHUNZHIKANGXINIANJIANDONGHANXIEDEBIJI《SANGANGSHILVE》JIZAI:

 

QINGSHUNZHISHINIAN,JIGONGYUAN1653NIAN,ANQINGZHANGSHISANSHIFAMINGYONGDOUJIANG——LEISIROUSUAN、SHUIYANGSUANDEJIANGZHIRANYI,RANGERTONGCHUANZAISHENSHANG,YICILAIRANGRENGANRANQINGWEIDETIANHUA。JIEZHONGZHIRENZAIQINGWEIFABINGZHIHOU,JIKEHUODEMIANYILI,ZHIHOUBIANBUHUIZAIFANTIANHUA。

广东快乐十分  

CIWAI,HAIYOUYIZHONG“BIMIAOFA”,JIUSHIBAQINGZHENGLEITIANHUABINGRENKUAIGANDEDOUCHUANGSHANGQUXIAJIABINGBAJIANIANCHENGFEN,BAFENCHUIDAOSHOUJIEZHONGRENDEBIKONGZHONG。DANSHIZHEIYANGZUO,CUNZAIYIDINGDEFENGXIAN,JIZHONGDOUDEJILIANGBIXUSHILIANG。JILIANGXIAO,JIUZHONGBUSHANG,QIBUDAOMIANYIZUOYONG。JILIANGGUODA,HUISHIRENZHENDEDETIANHUABING,SUOYIZHONGDOUDEFENMOJILIANGNANIEYAOZHUN。

       (痘衣法)

二、种痘法“东学西渐”

广东快乐十分 KANGXIDIZIJIDEFUQINSHISIYUTIANHUA,TAZIJIYECONGTIANHUADEMOZHANGZHONGJIAOXINGTAOCHU,YINCITASHENZHIZHEIZHONGCHUANRANBINGDEKEPA。DELETIANHUA,ZHONGZESASHOURENHUAN,QINGZEPOHUAIYANZHI。

 

广东快乐十分 1681NIAN,KANGXIDIPAIGUANYUANQIANWANGJIANGXI,ZHAOMUZHONGDOUYISHI。ZHIHOU,ZHUCHUNGUFENGMINGQIANWANGDONGBEIHEKAERKAWEIMANQINGGUIZUZIDIZHONGDOU,TACHENGWEIDIYIGEWEIHUANGSHIZHONGDOUDEYISHI。KANGXICHULERANGYISHIRUGONGWEIHUANGSHIYOUERZHONGDOU,HAIJIANGZHONGDOUFANGFACHUANWANGMENGGUDIQU。QIANLONGMONIAN,DONGBEIDIQUYEKAISHIZHONGDOU。

广东快乐十分  

BUGUO,QINGZHENGFUZHIDUIHUANGSHI、BUFENQIRENJIMENGGUGEQIJIJITUIGUANGZHONGDOUJISHU,BINGWEILELINGDIFANGQUANMIANTUIXINGCIYILIAOFA。MINJIANRENDOUFADECHUANBO,ZHUYAOHAISHIKAOSHISHENDEZHICHIYUYISHIDESHIJIAN。

广东快乐十分  

RENDOUJIEZHONGFAZAIQUANGUODECHUANBO,SHIDEZHONGGUORENDEMIANYICHENGDUYIJINGDADAOHENGAODESHUIZHUN。DANSHI,ZHEIZHONGFANGFAJISHIZAIZUILIXIANGDEYILIAOTIAOJIANXIA,RENGRANHUIYOU2%DESIWANGLV,YANZHONGSHISHENZHIHUIZAOCHENGJIANGJINYIBANDEZHONGDOUZHESIWANG。ZAIQINGCHAOZHONGYE,JIUYIJINGYOUHENDUORENFANDUIZHEIZHONGJISHU。

 

广东快乐十分 DANSHI,ZHEIZHONGZHONGDOUFANGFASHIDANGSHIRENLEIWEIYIDEXUANZE,YESHIZUIHAODEXUANZE。

 

广东快乐十分 YUCITONGSHI,ZHEIZHONGRENDOUJIEZHONGFAYINQILEXIFANGRENDEZHUYI,YINWEIXIFANGRENZHENGBEITIANHUAZHEMODESIQUHUOLAI。16-18SHIJI,MEINIANSIYUTIANHUADERENSHU,OUZHOUYUEWEI50WANREN,YAZHOUYUEWEI80WANREN,ERZHENGGE18SHIJIOUZHOURENSIYUTIANHUADEZONGSHU,ZEYUEZAI1.5YIRENYISHANG。

 

广东快乐十分 1688NIAN,JINGUANZHONGELIANGGUOJUNDUIZAIYAKESADADENANFENNANJIE,DANSHIEGUOSHICHENHAISHIHOUZHELIANPILAIDAOZHONGGUO,QINGQIUKANGXIDICHUANSHOUZHONGDOUJISHU。

广东快乐十分  

广东快乐十分 KANGXIKELIANYIREN,BIANJIANGZHEIYIJISHUKANGKAIDICHUANSHOUJILESHICHEN。

广东快乐十分  

广东快乐十分 CIWAI,ZHONGGUODERENDOUJIEZHONGFAHAICHUANDAOLEYINGGUOHERIBEN。GENJULAIHUACHUANJIAOSHIDEZHENZAI《NIUDOUKAO》ZHONGDEJIZAI,ZHONGGUOZHONGDOUJISHUJINGTUERQI,YOUYINGGUOZHUTUERQIDASHIDEMENGTAGUFURENCHUANWANGYINGGUO。MENGTAGUFURENZAITUERQISHI,ZHONGGUOYISHIWEITAJIEZHONGRENDOU,MIANYICHENGGONG。ZHONGDOUSHUCHUANWANGYINGGUOHOU,HAIDEDAOYINGGUONVWANGDEQINGLAI。1744NIAN,ZHONGGUODEDOUMIAOJIEZHONGYISHILIRENCHUANDAODARIBENCHANGQI,CONGCI,RIBENRENYEXUEHUILEZHEIZHONGZHONGDOUZHISHU。

 

ZHONGGUODERENDOUJIEZHONGFAWANJIULECHENGQIANSHANGWANDERENDEXINGMING,FAGUOQIMENGSIXIANGJIAFUERTAIRENWEI,ZHONGGUORENWEISHIJIEKAIQILEZHONGDOUDEXIANLIHEBANGYANG,SHISHIJIESHANGZUIRUIZHIYEZUIWENMINGDEMINZU。

       
(瘟疫爆发的欧洲)

三、西方人改良种痘法

广东快乐十分  

广东快乐十分 BUGUO,XIFANGRENYEHENKUAIRENSHIDAO,SUIRANRENDOUJIEZHONGFAKEYIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYIZHITIANHUA,DANSHI,TAQUEFEICHANGDEBUKEKAO。YIRENWEIQUZHONGDUIXIANG,YIDINGYAOZHAODAOHUANSHANGQINGXINGTIANHUADEBINGREN,ERQIEJISHISHIQINGXINGDETIANHUAYOUSHIYEHUIZAIMOUXIERENSHENSHANGDAOZHIZHONGXINGTIANHUAERZHIMING,SHENZHIYOUYINGGUOYIYUANSHUORUGUOTINGYONGRENDOU,TIANHUAJIUBUHUIBAOFA。

 

当时,英国乡间流行一个民间传说:一个人只要曾经染上牛痘,便不会再染上天花。英国人痘接种技师琴纳也注意到,挤牛奶的女工多数都曾感染牛痘,她们此后也很少患上天花。尽管这种逻辑链条经不起严格的推敲,但是琴纳还是意识到牛痘是跟天花有关,如果牛痘接种代替人痘接种,那么效果会不会更理想?

 

SHUOGANJIUGAN,1796NIAN5YUE14RI,QINNAJINXINGSHIYAN。TAYIJIEZHONGNIUDOUJIANGDEFANGFA,YONGYIBAQINGJIEDELIUYEDAOZAIYIMINGBASUINANHAIZHANMUSHI·FEILIPUDELIANGZHIGEBOSHANG,HUALEJIDAOSHANGKOU,RANHOUTITAJIEZHONGNIUDOU。NANHAIRANSHANGNIUDOUHOU,LIUXINGQINEIKANGFU。ZHIHOUQINNAZAITINANHAIJIEZHONGTIANHUA,JIEGUONANHAIWANQUANMEIYOUSHOUGANRAN,ZHEIGESHIYANZHENGMINGLENIUDOUNENGLINGRENDUITIANHUACHANSHENGMIANYI。

 

SUIRANZAIYIKAISHI,NIUDOUJIEZHONGFASHOUDAOGUANGFANDEHUAIYI,DANSHIBUKANGUANGGAOKANLIAOXIAODEYINGGUORENZUIZHONGHAISHIJIESHOULETA。

 

1798NIANHOU,JIEZHONGNIUDOUDEFANGFAGUANGFANYONGYUOUZHOUHEBEIMEI。QINNABEIHOURENCHENGWEIYIMIAOZHIFU,TADEYANJIUCHENGGUOHAIWEIHOURENDEYANJIUDAKAILETONGDAO,CUSHIBASIDE、KEHEDENGRENZHENDUIQITAJIBINGXUNQIUZHILIAOHEMIANYIDEFANGFA。

 

广东快乐十分 HENKUAI,NIUDOUJIEZHONGFAYOUCHUANDAOLEDONGFANG。JUKAOZHENG,1805NIAN,YIWEIMINGZIJIAOHAWEITUODEPUTAOYAYISHENG,JIANGNIUDOUYIMIAOCONGMANILADAIDAOLEAOMEN。CIHOU,YINGGUOYISHENGYALISHANDA·PIERXUN,YOUBANIUDOUYIMIAOYOUAOMENDAIDAOGUANGZHOU。WEILEZAIZHONGGUOTUIGUANGNIUDOUJIEZHONG,PIERXUNHAIZHUANXIELEYIBEN《XINDINGZHONGDOUQIFAXIANGXI》DEXIAOCEZI,QIANXIANYIDONG,BIANYUTUIGUANG。

 

在西方医生的引导下,中国人也开始积极参与牛痘的接种和推广,其中,最突出的代表人物就是邱熺。邱熺,字浩川,广东南海人,曾在澳门经商。当哈威脱把牛痘疫苗带到澳门之时,他敏锐的意识到牛痘接种的巨大社会价值。于是,他就到皮尔逊医生手下,帮助皮尔逊种牛痘,并掌握了这个技术。邱熺将十几年间种痘的方法和经验详细记录,写成了《引痘略》一书。

广东快乐十分  


广东快乐十分 (1796年,琴纳为一位8岁男孩接种牛痘疫苗)

广东快乐十分  

BUGUOKEXIDESHI,NIUDOUJIEZHONGSUIRANBEIZHONGGUOMINJIANDEYOUSHIZHISHIJIENA,DANSHIQUEBINGMEIYOUBEIPULUODAZHONGHEZHENGFUGAOCENGSUOZHONGSHI。

 

1870NIANSHI,SHANGHAIBAOFATIANHUACHUANRAN,SHANGHAIGONGGONGZUJIEWEISHENGGUANAIDEHUABOSHIKENQIUSHANGHAIDAOTAIZHICHIQUANMINJIEZHONGNIUDOUDEJIHUA。ZHEIGEDAOTAIDAOBUXIANGQITADEQINGZHENGFUGUANYUANNEIMEWANGU,YIKOUDAYINGLETUIXINGJIHUA,KESHIBULIAOZHEIGEJIHUAZAODAOLEMINJIANDEQIANGLIEFANDUI。

 

DANGSHI,SHANGHAICHIZHONGRENDOUFANDEJIANGHUYISHENG、DOUSHENNIANGNIANGDEKUANGRECHONGBAIZHE、DIZHIYANGJIAODEAIGUOQUNZHONG,ZAIBAOSHOUCANQUEHEBAOZHUFANWANDESHUANGZHONGDONGJIQUSHIXIA,JIECHENGZUIGUANGFANDETONGYIZHENXIAN,DUIAIDEHUABOSHIDENIUDOUJIEZHONGJIHUAKOUZHUBIFA。

 

MIANDUIRENMINQUNZHONGDEKANGYI,ZUJIEGONGBUJUCHANGSHIZHETIECHUYIZEGAOSHI:FANZIYUANJIEZHONGNIUDOUDEYOUTONG,SHANGJINSANBAIWEN!

广东快乐十分  

BUTIEDAOHAO,YITIEGAOSHI,RENMINQUNZHONGGENGZHAWOLE。YIZHIYILAI,MINJIANJIULIUCHUANZHEGEZHONGYANGJIAOSHANGTIANHAILIDEYAOYAN,SHENMENAXIAOHAIZIDEYANZHUZIDANGYAOYINZHILEIDE,BIJINTIANDEWEIXINBIAOTIDANGHAIYAOSONGRENTINGWEN。ZHEIZEGAOSHIGENGSHIJILEYAOCHUAN“YOULI”DEZHENGJU,YISHIJIANQUNQINGJIFEN。

广东快乐十分  

BUGUO,YOUQIANNENGSHIGUITUIMO,HAISHIYOURENBUGUMINZUQIJIE,QUFUZAIJINQIANDEYOUHUOXIA。ZAIJIASHANGAIDEHUAHAOZHAOYANGRENDEYOUTONGZAIJIETOUGUANGTIANHUARIZHIXIAPAIDUIJIEZHONGNIUDOU,QIDAOLEHENHAODESHIFANZUOYONG。JIANJIANDI,YIXIEKAIHUADESHANGHAISHIMINSUIJIXIANGYING,BUZHIBUJUEZHONG,NIUDOUJIEZHONGJIUZHEIMEDAKAILEZHONGGUORENDESIXIANGQUEKOU。YAOZHIDAO,CISHIYIJINGLINIUDOUYIMIAOCHUANRUZHONGGUO65NIAN。

 

ZHEIDUANLISHIGAOSUWOMEN,DANGSHIZAIZHONGGUOMINJIANTUIGUANGYIZHONGWAILAIDEYILIAOFANGFASHIDUOMEDEJIANNAN。ERQIE,SHANGHAISHIZHONGGUOZUIXIANKAIBUDEDIFANG,LIANZHEIZHONGDIFANGDEMINJIANDOURUCIDEWANGUBUHUA,MANGMUPAIWAI,JIUGENGBUYAOSHUOZHONGGUOQITADEDIFANGLE。

 

MINJIANBUJIESHOUNIUDOUJIEZHONG,GONGTINGDEYUYIMENDUINIUDOUJIEZHONGYESHISHIZHIBUJIAN、CHONGERBUWEN,RENGJIUBAOZHEZUCHUANDERENDOUJIEZHONGFAWEIHUANGSHIGUIZUZHONGDOU。

广东快乐十分  

广东快乐十分 YOUYUGONGTINGDEYILIAOXITONGWUFAYINGDUITIANHUA,DANGMIANDUITONGZHIDIYUELAIYUEYANZHONGDEBINGQINGSHI,TONGZHIJITUANZHINENGJIXIWANGYUXUWUPIAOMIAODESHENLING。CIXITAIHOULVLINGWENWUDACHEN,YIZHAOZUSHANGCHUANXIADEGUIJU,ZAIGONGNEIWAI“GONGSONGDOUSHEN”。YIHANDESHI,DOUSHENZHEICIBUXIANGMAIQINGZHENGFUDEZHANG。YUSHI,TONGZHIDIJIUZHINENGZAIYIPIANQIUSHENBAIFODEXUANXIAOZHONG,CIXI、CIANLIANGTAIHOUDETONGKUZHONG,QICANDELIKAIRENSHI。 

四、中国人拒绝牛痘法

ZAITONGZHIHUANGDIDEYOUNIANSHIQI,RIBENYIJINGGUANGFANDISHIXINGLEANQUANYOUXIAODENIUDOUJIEZHONGFA。

广东快乐十分  

ZHEIJIUSHIWOWEISHENMEGANKAITONGZHIDISIDEYUANWANGDEYUANYIN,YINWEIZAIDANGSHI,BUYAOSHUOOUMEIDENGXIFANGGUOJIAYIJINGGUANGFANCAIYONGLEKEYIZHIYUTIANHUADENIUDOUZHONGDOUFA,JIULIANZHUZAIWOMENGEBIDENEIGEHAIMEIYOUBEIMEIGUORENDAKAIGUOMENDERIBEN,DOUYIJINGKAISHIGUANGFANTUIXINGNIUDOUZHONGDOUFA。

广东快乐十分  

NIUDOUCHUANDAORIBENYAOBIZHONGGUOHAIYAOWANYIXIE,JIANGHUMOQI,TIANHUASHOUCICHUANBOJINRIBENBINGZAOCHENGXUDUORENSIWANG,YOUQISHIMIANYILIJIAOCHADEXIAOHAIZI。DANGSHIRIBENGUANGWEILIUCHUANDEYUFANGFANGFA,JIUSHICONGZHONGGUOCHUANGUOQUDERENDOUZHONGDOUFA。RENDOUZHONGDOUFADEXIAOGUOSHIYOUXIANDE,XUDUORENZAIJIEZHONGHOUJIUYINDEDAOTIANHUAERSIWANG。ZHEISHI,NEIXIEXUEXIHELANYISHUDERIBENYISHENGBIANKAISHIFAHUILETAMENDEZUOYONG。

 

1849NIAN,ZHEIXIELANXUEYISHENGJIUCONGZHUAWABADAWEIYAYINJINLEDOUMIAO,BINGCHENGGONGJINXINGLENIUDOUJIEZHONG。CIHOU,BEICHENGWEIRIBENXIANDAIYIXUEZHIFUDEXUFANGHONGANSHOUXIANZAIRIBENTUIXINGNIUDOUZHONGDOUFA,GUANGSHE“CHUDOUGUAN”,XUNLIAN“ZHONGDOUYI”,CHENGGONGDEYIZHILETIANHUAZAIRIBENDEMANYAN。

 

YEJIUSHISHUO,ZAITONGYIGESHIJIANDIANSHANG,YIGERIBENLIANXINGMINGDOUBUPEIYOUDENONGMIN,DOUKEYITONGGUOXINDEYILIAOFANGFATINGGUOTIANHUA,ERZHONGGUODEHUANGDIQUEZHINENGZAIDELETIANHUAHOUTANGZAICHUANGSHANGDENGSI。

 

ZAOZAISHILIUSHIJI,SUIZHE1542NIANPUTAOYADERUQIN,OUZHOUDEYIXUEJIUKAISHIHUANMANDISHENRURIBEN。ZAICIZHIQIAN,RIBENDEYISHENGZHUYAOSHIYI“HANFANG”——ZHONGYILAIZHIDAOTAMENYIZHIJIBINGDE。CIHOU,SUIRANMUFUSHIXINGBIGUANSUOGUODEZHENGCE,DANSHIRIBENYUHELANYIRANBAOCHIZHEYIDINGCHENGDUDEJIAOWANG。CONG1720NIANDECHUANJIZONGJIANGJUNFANGKUANJINLINGKAISHI,ZHANGQIYIBOBOSHURUDEYIXUEFANYIZHUZUOCONGWEITINGZHI,YISHUJIANGXISUOHEYIYUANDECHUANGBANYEYUANYUANBUDUAN。

广东快乐十分  

广东快乐十分 SUOYI,DUIYUMUFUSHIQIDERIBENRENLAISHUO,JIESHOUXIFANGDEYIXUESHIYIJIANZIRANERRANDESHI,JIUXIANGTAMENJIESHOUZHONGGUODEYIXUEYIYANG。

广东快乐十分  

             
(日本佐贺城接种牛痘疫苗)

广东快乐十分  

ERZHONGGUOZIDAOGUANGCHUNIANQI,BEIJINGSUIYIYINJINNIUDOUJIEZHONGFA,DANQUEJIANBUDAOHUANGJIAZINVZHONGNIUDOUDEJIZAI,YIZHIDAOGUANGDIDEJIGEZINVJITONGZHIDIRENGGANRANTIANHUA。GONGZHONGBUYINYONGNIUDOUJIEZHONGFA,ZHINENGSHUOGONGTINGYUYIMENGUBUZIFENG,BAOSHOUCANQUE。TAMENWUSHIXIANFENGDICHADIANSIYUTIANHUADEXIANSHI,BUYUANYIZOUCHUGONGMENQUXUEXIGENGXIANJINYOUXIAODEYISHU,ZONGYIWEIZIJIKEYIYIZHAOXIANCHIBIANTIAN。

 

CONGMOUZHONGYIYISHANGJIANG,ZHEIXIEYUYIYUDANGSHIBAOSHOUZHUYIDEGUANLIAOBINGWUBUTONG。

广东快乐十分  

广东快乐十分 TAMENDOUXINSHANGGURENDECHUANGZAOHEFAMING,LIULIANGUDAIDEDIANZHANGHEZHIDU,DANSHIZHEIZHONGTAIDUZOUXIANGJIDUAN,JIUSHITAMENDENAOZILIZHINENGZHUANGMANJIUXUE,ERWUFARONGNAXINZHI。ZHINENGNIGUBUHUA,WUFAYUSHIJUJIN。KANGXINIANJIAN,XIFANGDEHUANGJIADOUKEYIJIESHOUZHONGGUOCHUANGUOQUDERENDOUJIEZHONGJISHU,ERMEIYOURENHEQINGGANSHANGHUOSHIJIAZHIGUANSHANGDEDICHUQINGXU。DANSHIDANGXIFANGDENIUDOUJIEZHONGJISHUCHUANDAOZHONGGUOSHI,TAQUEBEIGONGTINGJUZHIMENWAI。

 

SHIBEIJUJIUBUYAOZHONGYAN,SHILISHIJIUYAOMINGJI。1980NIAN,SHIJIEWEISHENGZUZHIXUANBURENLEIXIAOMIETIANHUA。ERDUIYUZHONGGUOLAISHUO,FANGZHITIANHUAZHEIJIANSHIBENKEYIZUODEGENGHAO,RANGGENGDUODEMINZHONGYUANLITIANHUADEMENGYAN。

 

广东快乐十分 ZUOWEIYIGEZUIZAOFAMINGLETIANHUAFANGZHIJISHUDEGUOJIA,DAQINGWANGCHAODEZUIGAOTONGZHIZHEJINGRANSIYUTIANHUA,ZENMEKANZENMEXIANGSHIHEISEYOUMO。ZHEIBEIHOUDEJIAOXUN,ZHIDEWOMENDUOXIANGYIXIANG。

广东快乐十分  

参考资料:

1、《清史资料·第四辑》,中华书局,1986年
2、 (清)俞正燮《癸巳存稿》,辽宁教育出版社,2003年
3、邱中麟《明清的人痘法-地域流布、知识传播与疫苗生产》,中央研究院历史语言研究所集刊,2006年
4、杜家骥《从清宫医案看天花的防治-种痘与治痘 》,《中国社会历史评论》2007年第1期    
5、(日)加藤徹《西太后-大清国最后的光芒》,社会科学文献出版社,2015年  
6、吴兰华《中国传统医学史》,科学出版社,1992年
7、余新忠《清朝江南种痘事业探论》,《清史研究》,2003.2

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